The main function of the lymphatic system of the human body – protection from toxins, pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. The most significant elements of this system are the lymph nodes of size in the standard, does not exceed the pea.Lymph nodes that contain white blood cells and the yellow liquid (the lymph).The most recent bathes the cells of all the organs, localizes microorganisms, and changed the tumor cells in the lymph nodes. This mechanism allows you to delay the spread of infection through the body and the growth of malignant tumors.
Directly into the lymph nodes, is the destruction of cancer cells, viruses, and microbes lymphocytes, which begin to actively share. A slight increase in a lymph node can mean that it has begun to work more actively in relation with the beginning of the disease. If sore lymph node on the neck, it is called the inflammatory process in a short distance from him.
The causative agent of the disease is able to penetrate in the lymph nodes in the following ways:
- Hematogenous route.
- By means of the lymph.
- Pin the path.
This reaction has received the title of lymphadenitis. Pathology of the lymphatic system require special medical attention, because they are always the companion of a serious illness. It is therefore necessary to immediately contact a qualified doctor.
Causes cervical lymphadenitis's
The increase of lymph nodes on the neck often is one way. When this happens defeat primarily that of education, which is located close to a source of inflammation or infection. If enlarged lymph nodes-causing the growth of the tonsils, salivary, around the ears, lacrimal glands, it is necessary to consult a doctor immediately.
If neck lymph nodes are increased in a matter of a few months, the doctor may suspect the presence of a malignant tumor. In these cases, there has been a dramatic reduction in the elasticity of the lymphatic vessels, their increase, the involvement in the pathological process located near the lymph node. The same lymph node, solid to the touch, it pain.
Then lead to an increase in a lymph node can be any of the following reasons:
- Bacterial, fungal infections and viral (SARS, tonsillitis, acute, tuberculosis, chickenpox, influenza, toxoplasmosis, rubella, stomatitis, otitis media, caries, periodontitis).
- Mechanical Trauma.
- The human immunodeficiency virus.
- Reduction in the immunity. The course of the disease, the stress, the cold, the lack of vitamins can cause lymphadenitis. Frequent infectious diseases can lead to tensions lymphadenitis.
- Auto-immune diseases.
- The toxins in the blood.
- Oncology. The development lymphadenitis's can be the consequence of the onset of the tumor of the lymph tissue.
- Quite rarely lymphadenitis call: alcoholism, disorders in the functioning of the thyroid or metabolism.
Separately highlight what are the causes lymphadenitis's:
- Allergies to medications.
- Allergy to the toxins of insects.
- The immune response has been subject to vaccination.
In such cases, there is an increase of lymph nodes, marked pain, swelling of the face, fever, chills.
Classification of the diseaseDistinguish the different phases lymphadenitis's according to the symptoms:
- Hurt lymph nodes on the neck slightly, with palpation determined a slight increase. The patient can celebrate the weakness, headache and increase in body temperature during a long period of time.
- The lymph node increased in a significant way, determined visually (the size can vary from a pea to an egg), pain on palpation, during the act of swallowing. The patient complains of weakness, increased body temperature, noise during the rotation of the head, loss of appetite, and headache.
- Severe pain and redness in the area of the lymph node evidenced by the development of purulent inflammation. The patient observes the high-temperature (up to 40), fever, chills, a bad mood, apathy, nausea, and vomiting. Headaches, dizziness can indicate a serious intoxication of the body.
In chronic lymphadenitis, as listed above symptoms may be absent. To diagnose the disease is very problematic, because the lymph nodes can almost not perceptible to the touch. In such cases, the lack of treatment will lead to a gradual and irreversible degeneration cervical lymph nodes.
Cervical lymphadenitis in the pediatric age group
The inflammation of lymph nodes widely common in children, who often suffer from colds. The inflammatory process may occur even at a young age, however, in these cases, the diagnosis of a node difficult. In children very often the lymph nodes are during the cold, and are they the same after healing. It should also be remembered that some of the lymph nodes because of its particular location (individual characteristics of the child) may only seem to be increased and require treatment.The causes of the development lymphadenitis's in children, the most common are:
- Bacterial and viral infection (sore throat, influenza, toxoplasmosis, mononucleosis).
- The reaction was subjected to vaccination.
- Skin damage (scratches of cats, and rodents).
If the lymph node affects the child for a long time for no apparent reason, in the body goes to the inflammation. Put a definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment can only a doctor after the diagnosis.
Lymphadenitis in pregnant women
Of particular interest is the inflammation of the lymph nodes during pregnancy, because this disease can leave negative consequences for the body of the mother and the fetus. The disease occurs because of a reduction of the immunity of women during pregnancy, provoking can the same factors. In such cases, difficulties may arise when you choose to drugs.
During pregnancy is strictly forbidden to treat lymphadenitis alone. It is necessary to consult a doctor, who will be able to discover the cause of inflammation, assign effective and safe medicines. Interested their health carefully and at the first unpleasant symptoms better to consult a specialist.
The main methods of diagnosis of pathology
There are more than a hundred different diseases that can cause a reaction of the lymphatic system. And ' therefore necessary to carry out differential diagnosis of diseases, paying attention to minor symptoms.
Today the most accessible and informative for the diagnosis is the ultrasound (ULTRASOUND). It allows you to determine the size and shape of the lymph nodes, to assess their structure, in some cases, the forecast losses of the formations. For example, herpetic infection leads to an increase in multiple lymph nodes at the same time.It is important to understand that the possibilities of ultrasound are limited, so to confirm the diagnosis it may be necessary to perform additional clinical examinations and laboratory:
- Blood count.
- The magnetic RESONANCE imaging.
- The computed tomography scan.
- The x-ray.
- The biopsy of a lymph node with subsequent histologic examination of the tissues.
X-ray method is effective only if the calcification lymph node, that is, the deposition in lymphoid formations of calcium salts. These changes need a couple of years, or serious disturbances of the metabolism.
If they hurt the lymph nodes on the neck, the therapy should include treatments that will effectively eliminate the outbreak of inflammation, and of all the signs of the disease. The treatment must be strictly individually, depending on the cause of the disease and its stage. It is important to remember that the lymphatic system is a physiological shield for the body with the ability to produce lymphocytes, which are able to fight the pathogens of various nature (viruses, bacteria, parasites). That's why, with a simple inflammation, the body is able to handle it by yourself.If the lymph node sore for a long time, part of the general intoxication of the body, is widely used the following scheme of treatment:
- Physical drop, the rest in bed, drink plenty of water.
- The application of anti-inflammatory drugs, which has an antibacterial effect. The ineffectiveness can be the use of steroid drugs.
- Extra the use of pain killers and antibiotics with wide spectrum of action on the background of a strengthening of the funds, taking vitamin supplements will speed up the recovery.
- You can use the methods popular as adjunctive therapy: to gargle decoction of herbs (chamomile, calendula), which allows you to act locally on the outbreak of inflammation. It is important to remember that traditional medicine can act only as a processing auxiliary.
- Fix the power supply. It is necessary to increase in the diet the amount contain the vitamins of fruits, vegetables (onions, citrus fruit), which help fight infection, add the dairy products.
- Appointment UHF-therapy will reduce the time of healing. This therapeutic technique is based on the exposure to electromagnetic fields at frequencies of ultra-high on the painful area.
- In the absence of timely medical care in the execution of clinical cases resorting to surgical treatment (pass through a lumbar puncture or total excision of a lymph node).
When lymphadenitis the lymph node it is not possible to heat, rub and apply on the affected area iodine. These activities may cause the spread of infections, increasing the risk of brain injury.
The main prevention measures
Specific prevention lymphadenitis's does not exist, because the disease refers to the polyetiological disease (pathology, developing countries for many reasons).However, to prevent the inflammation of the lymph nodes will allow the following activities:
- The correct new cure.
- Maintain the health of the immune system.
- Timely treatment of acute infectious disease, which does not allow you to go with them in the chronic form.
- Maximum exclude hypothermia and stay in the cold air.
- Reduce the risk of injury, infections of the wounds.
It is important to remember that any discomfort in the area of the neck, nape of the neck and below the jaw in the majority of cases relate to worrying symptoms. The lymph nodes on the neck increase in size and hurt only in the presence of a severe inflammatory process. To avoid bringing a radical intervention is necessary in case of pain syndrome immediately by a specialist and comply with all the requirements.